I have wondered if you could run vanilla Linux kernel all on its own without any kind of distribution.
I knew about Linux from scratch, which is basically a tutorial on how to create your own Linux system.
I haven’t worked my way through that book, but it’s a great way of getting to know the internals of a Linux system.
I didn’t use that book because I prefer to tinker around on my own. It was still very useful resource to look things up sometimes.
When I tried to find information about running the bare kernel, the most fequent reaction was “why on earth would you want to do that”. The information seemed to suggest that the kernel could probably boot but would then complain about not being able to run the init process. That sounded good enough for me to go and try.
First of all it’s a great way of learning about the Linux kernel. I ended up spending about 3 days and learned a ton of stuff that I would
probably never learn from just the user side. Also I’m studying robotics in university and being familiar with the Linux kernel will definitely be useful at some point.
Further down the road I would like to build something from scratch on real hardware. For example running custom kernel on some old android phone. I doubt it’s doable to get all of the phone hardware running because a lot of the firmware is closed source. Getting the CPU and some generic devices working shouldn’t be a problem. Modern phones have so much hardware in them, imagine buying a cheap used smartphone and using it for a robotics prototype. It would be so much cheaper than a dev kit and sensor modules. I don’t know how realistic it is, but that’s my ultimate goal with this.
How far did I get?
The most natural start seemed to be a x86 virtual machine. I got the kernel working on both VirtualBox and QEMU virtual machines. The kernel refused to boot without a bootloader, so I had to use Syslinux (ISOLINUX). Then I added BusyBox to have a shell and some basic commands like mount/cat/vi/echo and so on. With BusyBox I could even configure a network interface and connect to the internet. Obviously I didn’t have a browser, but I could download HTML with telnet. Eventually I wrote the thing on a USB stick and even got my laptop to boot the kernel and recognize my WIFI card. Doesn’t seem like much but it was a lot further than I expected to get.
Documentation of the process
First we need the kernel. You can download kernels from kernel.org
# first set up a new directory for everything mkdir kernelbuild cd kernelbuild # download and pipe to tar curl -L https://git.kernel.org/torvalds/t/linux-4.19-rc7.tar.gz | tar xvz cd linux-4.19-rc7 # set arch to x86 arch=x86 # you can replace with x86_64_defconfig, I needed 32bit for virtualbox (no virtualization stupport on laptop) make i386_defconfig # enable all the features and drivers you need make menuconfig # if you're mssing some dependencies you're gonna have to install them here (https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/v4.15/process/changes.html) make
I’m not sure if it’s possible to convince the kernel to boot on it’s own. If I tried the kernel just printed “Use a bootloader”. Thus I used Syslinux.
cd .. curl -L https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/Testing/6.04/syslinux-6.04-pre1.tar.gz | tar xvz cd syslinux-6.03 make clean make cd .. # let's start constructing a .iso image mkdir iso cd iso # see https://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php?title=ISOLINUX mkdir isolinux kernel images cp ../syslinux-6.04-pre1/bios/core/isolinux.bin isolinux/ cp ../syslinux-6.04-pre1/bios/com32/elflink/ldlinux/ldlinux.c32 isolinux/ cp ../syslinux-6.04-pre1/bios/memdisk/memdisk images/ cp ../linux-4.19-rc7/arch/x86/boot/bzImage kernel/ # edit these to match below touch isolinux/isolinux.cfg isolinux/boot.txt cd ..
display boot.txt prompt 1 default 1 edd off label 1 kernel /kernel/bzImage append initrd=/images/init.igz edd=off console=ttyS0 console=tty0
1 - Boot your awesome kernel
Just to see where we’re at we can create the iso and boot it.
# first add comment character infront of "append initrd=..." line in isolinux.cfg, otherwise bootloader won't let us boot # don't forget to remove it later mkisofs -o system.iso -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table ./iso # apt install qemu (on debian/ubuntu) if you don't have QEMU # this is 32bit emulator qemu-system-i386 -cdrom ./system.iso
[ 3.673814] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unknown-block(0,0) ]---
Basically Linux needs a filesystem to work with. Normally this would be the main HDD/SSD partition on your computer.
That’s not the whole story though. To mount the real rootfs modern Linux systems also use a temporary filesystem that is stored
in RAM. That temporary filesystem should contain everything needed to get the main one up. Including utilities like mount, firmware,
kernel modules etc.
I won’t go that far in this article. I’ll just use the temporary filesystem as rootfs for now.
Long story short: the missing link is initramfs. We already specified where it’s gonna be located with initrd=/images/init.igz
The general idea is the same as with the iso: we create a directory and then turn that directory into an image file.
mkdir initramfs cd initramfs mkdir bin dev etc lib proc sbin sys usr var # we only make the absole minimum amount of directories and files (and probably quite a bit less) to boot touch init # needs to be executed (doesn't matter here, beceause it's empty) # without the empty init program the kernel doesn't recognize the filesystem chmod 755 init cd dev # now we need some essential device files # for that we use mknod [path] [c (char) / b (block) / p (pipe/fifo)] [major] [minor] # more info https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/Documentation/admin-guide/devices.txt mknod null c 1 3 mknod zero c 1 5 mknod tty0 c 4 0 mknod tty1 c 4 1 mknod tty2 c 4 2 mknod tty3 c 4 3 mknod tty4 c 4 4 mknod ttyS0 c 4 64 mknod ttyS1 c 4 65 mknod ttyS2 c 4 66 mknod ttyS3 c 4 67 cd ../etc echo "root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/sh" > passwd touch group cd ../..
touch make_iso.sh # now use vi, nano, gedit or whatever
# create cpio archive cd initramfs find . | cpio -H newc -o > ../initramfs.cpio cd .. # gzip it cat initramfs.cpio | gzip > initramfs.igz # copy to iso cp ./initramfs.igz ./iso/images/init.igz # remake the iso mkisofs -o system.iso -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table ./iso
source make_iso.sh qemu-system-i386 -cdrom ./system.iso
[ 4.681241] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: No working init found. Try passing init= option to kernel. See Linux Documentation/admin-guide/init.rst for guidance. ]---
I found the easiest way to do that was by using Buildroot. In fact Buildroot could do everything we have done so far for us. But where’s the fun in that?
curl -L https://buildroot.org/downloads/buildroot-2018.02.6.tar.bz2 | tar xvj cd buildroot-2018.02.6/ # make sure the arch is right # uClibc should be the default libc # you can disable as much of the other stuff as possible (besides toolchain) to improve compile time make menuconfig make cd .. # add the built binaries to $PATH # your diretory might be different # the variable only stays in your current shell PATH=~/kernelbuild/buildroot-2018.02.6/output/host/bin:$PATH
Now get BusyBox
curl -L https://busybox.net/downloads/busybox-1.29.3.tar.bz2 | tar xvj cd busybox-1.29.3 # set Settings->Build static binary (no shared libs) # set Settings->Cross compiler prefix to i686-buildroot-linux-uclibc- # set Settings->Destination path for 'make install' to /home/youruserhere/kernelbuild/initramfs (or wherever your initramfs directory is, using ~ doesn't work) make menuconfig make make install cd ..
cd initramfs rm init # create symbolic link ln -s ./bin/busybox init touch /etc/inittab # now edit it cd ..
::askfirst:/bin/sh ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r ::restart:/sbin/init # optional serial port console #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt320
source make_iso.sh qemu-system-i386 -cdrom ./system.iso
[ 3.694335] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 2656k [ 3.695322] Run /init as init process [ 4.088901] input: ImExPS/2 Generic Explorer Mouse as /devices/platform/i8042/serio1/input/input3 Please press Enter to activate this console. / # _
I’ll leave the pieces of how I got ethernet working for documentation purposes:
qemu-system-i386 -cdrom ./system.iso -netdev user,id=mynet0,net=192.168.76.0/24,dhcpstart=192.168.76.9 -device e1000,netdev=mynet0 # drivers in kernel menuconfig : Device Drivers > Network device support > Ethernet driver support > Intel(R) PRO/1000 Gigabit Ethernet support # requires PCI to be enabled
touch etc/network/interfaces mkdir var/run mkdir etc/network/if-up.d etc/network/if-down.d etc/network/if-post-down.d etc/network/if-pre-up.d touch /etc/resolv.conf
auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp
# Google DNS nameserver 18.104.22.168 nameserver 22.214.171.124
mount -t sysfs sys /sys mount -t proc proc /proc ifup -a # normally you would have a script in usr/share/udhcpc/default.script to do this automatically ifconfig eth0 192.168.76.9 netmask 255.255.255.0 up route add default gw 192.168.76.2 # should work ping -c 3 tammearu.eu
If you want to make this work on real hardware you either burn the iso to CD or DVD. To make usb stick work you need to use isohybrid on the iso first and then use dd or something else to get it on the usb stick (just copying the files won’t work).
I’d like to emphasize that this was just for learning purposes. I doubt doing everything by hand is the most efficient approach in real life. There are tons of tools out there for doing all this, but I think it’s useful to know how it works under the hood.